An Old Russian Custom…Or…Stopping for a Moment Before the Journey Begins: Responding to Student Writing


At the end of the recent faculty writing retreat, when asked to share a choice that we had made over the past two days about our fall courses, several people spoke about awe in the classroom, a concept introduced the first day by one of our colleagues in response to a prompt about the role of reading and writing in our own lives. One faculty member, in wanting to establish an environment in which his first-year students could make note of and reflect on their awe at being in such a community engaged in learning, said that to open his course, he would tell a traditional story about Russian emigrants: Just before they set off on the long journey across continents and oceans to whatever new life awaited them, they would gather as a group and sit down upon their bags, look around them in silent awe and reflection. How important this is to stop and make note of the moment, at what has come before, at what it means to be in this moment—it is a lovely story that I, too, plan to tell my students on Tuesday the 12th when I meet them, and we’ll do our own version of sitting on our bags taking in the wonderment of this moment when we are about to begin our journey together.

Then we’ll write.

And we’ll thus have walked though the door of the semester, committed ourselves to this community of learners, of reciprocal apprenticeships (Levy), a moment indeed fraught with awe, a feeling that mixes wonder and fear. When we study together and write together, we open ourselves up to one another; putting our writing out there can leave us feeling exposed and vulnerable (particularly an eighteen-year-old entering college and quite sure that he or she was somehow mistakenly admitted in the first place and will be so woefully behind everyone else in the room) –ah, the delicate moment when there is the potential for response or evaluation from those around us.

After we write for ten minutes or so about this feeling of awe, we will talk about the gremlin sitting on our shoulders laughing derisively at us as we write for an audience, sneering at the very thought of us presuming to be a writer, at having something to say and being able to say it elegantly. We talk about ways to shut that gremlin down, how we can develop ways to write hot and read cold—to balance within ourselves the artist and the critic. We’ll talk about the evaluation process in the course, how they will see no grades until the end of the semester but they will receive a good deal of feedback from themselves, from one another, from me and perhaps even from people beyond our classroom.

Responding to Student Writing
We use three and sometimes four concentric circles of responses to our writing—the writer reading her own work, the writer’s peers reading her work, the teacher reading her work (and as much as I would like to place myself squarely within the circle of learners in all senses of that notion, whether I like it or not, I will always wield power in the classroom due to my position of experience, of expertise, of responsibility for grades and mentoring and crafting the parameters of the course—it is how I invite the students to use that power to their own learning advantage that makes the difference), and the outside world reading her work. We talk about these audiences as we work through a writing project, reflecting as we go on, deciding when we need eyes other than our own to reflect back to us what seems to be written on our pages.

Feedback Circle One: Responding to One’s Own Writing
First off, I think it is crucial to keep the reins firmly in the hands of the writer. We each need to take responsibility for own learning, our own writing. And so we develop an ongoing reflective practice as we write—sometimes we write letters to ourselves and/or to our writing about our own sense of how our ideas are moving from fuzzy shapes to clear articulations; sometimes we write in another genre about what we are working out; for example, I often talk about writing a poem version of an essay, or about writing a poem to our essay. Sometimes we tell someone else in a conference about our piece of writing, the other person asking questions and acting as scribe without offering opinions. Sometimes we record ourselves reflecting aloud on the process, the content, the writing—I am very much a believer in using many ways of expressing and thinking—using our entire creative & critical selves. Sometimes we dance our writing (yes, we do) or color it by using a range of tones—from cool tones where the writing and the ideas are quiet to hot ones where the argument might get heated, the imagery intense, the passion of the writer clear. These are all ways for the writer to respond to her own work and thus to deepen her own understanding of the tender shoots of ideas that need sun and water and tending, sometimes pruning or training, if they are to flower.

Even when we are adding other circles of response to this first one, we are still engaged in our own ongoing review of the work—(we are careful not to judge ourselves as writers in the process—keeping that gremlin at bay). I share my own horrendous early drafting of stories and papers. I show them blog posts that I keep in draft mode because they aren’t ready for the light of day—the ideas aren’t developing, the writing lies flat and uninspired, something just doesn’t feel quite right about it.

Feedback Circle Two: Peers Responding
If from the first day of a course, the community itself has been valued and nurtured through a series of exercises and downright open consideration of what an effective learning community looks like and feels like to us (I’ve written a bit about this topic before, but will perhaps return to it this week as it is foremost on my own mind as I get ready to step back into the classroom), then moving our writing out into the group, no matter how early on in the process, can be of real benefit. We can hear back what our writing means to readers who have only our words as they read and not all of what we meant to write down or that remains snagged on some corner in our mind.

In large classes, we set up feedback loops, groups of five students (I like to rotate these groups every three weeks or so to keep the feedback unexpectedly fresh) per group, who through the blog (RSS feeds and/or blog clusters moving off the Motherblog) have access to everything their peers choose to post. We post anything we want a response to, keeping off-blog that which is either private or not yet ready for the eyes of the world. Then the writer indicates what kind of feedback she is ready for and hopes to receive; she ends her post with her own sense of where she is in the process and what kind of feedback she seeks. Her readers first off read back to her what they think the piece is about. They let her know what they have learned through reading the piece and when it moved them, when it confused them, when it left them wanting more. Students write to one another via blog comments and/or email. They get together one-one-one and all five together during quasi-weekly feedback workshops to talk as a group—face to face discussion is essential during the process because body language and ideas generated through the give-and-take of conversation can provide feedback not picked up in written comments. Responders ask lots of questions, summarize; sometimes they color the piece with markers—red for when it really grabbed them by the jugular or showed the potential to do so. We talk about taking the work seriously but not ourselves—we are responding for the good of the writing and the writer, not because we want to sound smart or glib or talented. We talk a whole lot about honesty and respect. We don’t ever say, “You should do this…”

From time to time, when I see blogged responses that either really seem to do very little for the writer: “Hey, good job—I liked it a lot. Keep everything just as you have it” kinds of responses, I will show this kind of response in class, and we’ll talk about ways to work towards better responding. We talk about how responding well to other people’s writing will serve our own writing, how reading well and writing well are inextricably intertwined skills. We learn how to read as writers and to write as readers. We talk a lot about intended audience and the expectations of different kinds of audiences and how that can affect our choices in terms of content and expression. We look at a range of publications; we pretend near the end of the process to be editors at an appropriate periodical trying to help a writer prepare a manuscript for publication. We talk about what’s essential; we talk about voice. We talk a lot.

Feedback Circle Three: The Teacher Responding
We talk about my role in the feedback circle. I avoid full, teacherly responses for as long as possible, because no matter what we say, as soon as we move in to put in our two cents, the writer forgets to listen to herself or her peers. We become the only audience that matters; we hold the grading pen; we are the experts, the authorities; that’s what we’re paid for. Early in my courses, students crave this kind of feedback from me; they want to hand things in the way they always have and get from me what they need to do to make it an “A” level paper if it isn’t already. I of course resist that role because it jeopardizes what we are really after here—growing learners who see themselves as the experts on their own writing, and as reciprocal apprentices within the learning community. And yet I DO have things to say because I have spent many years reading student writing, my writing, published writing, It is what I do. And of course I am opinionated, too!

I do not write responses to student writing until the project is very near completion—then I choose just a couple of what I see to be the issues most ripe for tackling and write about those. I also write about what works for me—where in the piece I find myself thinking, engaged, enlightened. I write questions.

I meet with my students one-on-one in short (15-minute) conferences during which they are invited to bring something they feel is ready for my feedback. They must prepare for said conference by being ready to talk about their own response to the writing and about that of their peers. Often I find that they already know what works and doesn’t—they may need encouragement and a little help in the HOW—how to pare away the boxcars of overused phrases; how to integrate a particular quotation into their argument; how to find the ending. I never bleed a pen through their essays, copyediting, trying to cover every mistake, every clumsy use of language. Instead I’ll teach a little impromptu lesson in dangling modifiers, say, if the writing is hampered by them and have the writer search for more of them in her draft.

I do not need to read everything they write. I do not need to comment on everything I read. That is not a good use of my teaching time—pointed, timely feedback is crucial for them and reasonable for me.

The Fourth Circle: Readers from the World
I often try to enlist outside readers to take a peek into my classrooms and leave feedback for my students. I also encourage my students to get outside readers—the kind of reader they are thinking of when they write the piece.


I do not grade individual essays, poems or stories.

I find that grading individual pieces detracts from the development of the writers—their early-in-the-semester pieces SHOULD be disasters, yes? If they are ambitious enough and stretching, challenging themselves to the core of their being, they will encounter numerous glorious failures along the way. And that’s as it should be. We talk about the writer’s rule that for every ten pages you keep, you throw away a hundred. That’s what good and messy creative thinking is all about. Often we have to write for a long time to get to our real subject. School is, of course, an unnatural environment. The writing assignments are not often useful in the world—they are exercises. Students write notes to themselves after each writing project about what they learned—the successes and the failures, and what they know they want to work on in the next paper in order to continue their development.

I write the students a short letter at the end of each unit (they collect their work in mini-portfolios—this way they take long hard looks at their learning journey periodically during the semester rather than just at the end) in response to the letter they write to themselves and to me about the work contained in that unit and in response to the goals they set for themselves in the upcoming writing assignments. My letter is based on notes I have taken during our conferences, what I notice about the evolution of their writing, helping them take a step back and see how their writing is working and how it is not.

At the end of the semester, they hand in one last portfolio which pulls in all the work (we do not have time in our semester for another series of revisions—I would rather have them treat each new writing assignment as essentially a revision of the one before and so we rarely do three drafts per essay even though we talk about how when we write outside of classrooms, we write many many drafts) and one last hyperlinked reflection on the entire semester. Even these are read by themselves and their peers –even these have the potential to move and teach those in reciprocal apprenticeship with them. For example, Zamir’s final reflection helped Leah to write hers; Katie’s moved several members of the class by its inventiveness and beauty as well as its spot-on self-understanding.

And grading? I do it at the last possible moment. At the end. Holistically. This way grades reflect where they get to, not where they were when they had no experience at the beginning of the semester.

A couple of helpful sites on responding to and evaluating writing–

U Washington’s “Responding to Student Writing”
An article from University of Michigan’s Sweetland Center –with a helpful bibliography

Michael Kischner “Should Teachers Comment on Drafts of Student Essays?” also with a helpful bibliography

Indiana’s “Articles on Evaluating Student Writing”

WAC Clearinghouse Bibliography


Responding to & Evaluating Student Writing

Tomorrow, I head to Middlebury’s annual Faculty Writing Retreat where I’ll be leading a discussion on how we respond to student writing across the curriculum including evaluating the work. This is one of the trickiest and one of the most important topics to consider as we head back into our classrooms this fall. I will follow this post with one outlining how and when I respond to writing in my classes, and how I evaluate writing, but for now, I want to raise questions and see how the group responds.


When do we teachers respond to our students’ writing and when do we step back and resist giving feedback?

When are we not the best responders to student writing?

At what point in the process can our comments best aid the writer?

What kinds of comments help the writer develop skill and confidence? Do we address content over organization and style? How do we address mechanical errors? How do we find a balance between giving too little and too much feedback?

Do we have our students work through a drafting-revising process, with checkpoints along the way?
If we incorporate a drafting process, do we look at everything?

Do we expect students to turn in a rough draft? If so, are we the best responders to the draft or would it benefit the writer to work with peers or a tutor at this point?
(Some teachers do not read the papers until they are “finished”; others read and respond in depth to the rough draft but not to the final draft, which they read quickly to see how well the student executed the corrections/suggestions.)

If we do not respond, who does? How? Why? When?

Do we have students respond to one another’s work? When? Why? Do we provide them with rubrics? Questions to answer about the writing? Do we have the learning community itself establish rules of responding–the etiquette, the substance of the response? Do we let the writer lead the feedback sessions by asking the questions of the reader?

Do we have peer writing tutors assigned to our classes? How and when do they interact with the writing and the writers?

Do we have the writers themselves read their own work as readers, making comments about strengths and weaknesses during the process and at the end?


Do we use rubrics? If so, do we create them or do we have the class design them?

Do we show them examples of what we consider to be exemplary, satisfactory and deficient writing?

Do we have students self-evaluate their writing? With grades? Through an ongoing reflective process, conferences with us and class tutors, written self-assessments at the end of a writing project?

Do we give a content grade and a writing grade?

Do we grade the writing at all? If we do not grade written work, how do we factor this work into the course grade?

Do we use portfolios? eportfolios? In all courses with a strong writing component? Do we let students decide on the contents? How often do students hand in pieces of a portfolio? Do we respond to and evaluate each piece or to the whole? Do the portfolios have a narrative reflective component?

Links to helpful sites, including examples from Middlebury courses:

Middlebury’s Teaching Resources: Grading

From Harvard’s Bok Center: Grading Rubric

Amherst’s List of Words Faculty Say They Never Want to See Again

Dartmouth’s Detailed Website: Responding to Student Text, including Using Peer Groups and Model Responses (Dartmouth’s entire Writing Program Site is filled with terrific resources for faculty and students
U of Texas’s Site on Evaluating Student Writing
St. Olaf’s Web Portfolios
Kalamazoo College’s Portfolio SIte

Barbara Sawhill Comes to Middlebury!

In a convergence of Barbaras (and a stroke of pure genius), Barbara Ganley (yours truly) invited Barbara Sawhill to Middlebury College to give a workshop on using Web 2.0 technologies in second-language teaching. So for once, instead of skyping or blogging, we sat in the same room, and it was quite a pleasure to listen to her talk about how blogs, wikis and skype have informed her teaching. I blogged the session and recorded the first half of the workshop (on a wee iTALK, hence the fuzzy quality), so I’ll get out of the way and let her do the talking via my notes and the audio files:

I. Introduction
Barbara opened the workshop with a writing prompt: “If you could change one thing about your language class, what would it be?”

“I am a teacher and a technologist–and I put those in that order,” she continued:And indeed, I know from having heard her talk before and from reading languagelabunleashed, that she grounds the technology deeply in the teaching; she tries out the tools in her own classrooms before introducing them to her faculty. (This is the wisdom of educational technologists having a foot squarely within the classroom, sharing the experience of the teachers they are trying to reach–teaching technologists or techie teachers? She can speak to teachers from the authentic successes and failures of her own classroom, and that makes all the difference in her understanding of the relationship between technology and teaching, and in her ability to reach faculty.)

She also pointed out that she uses tools that have been out there for 4-5 years and are quite stable–what’s new is using them in foreign language teaching, not in other ways. She wants others to try the tools out, tweak them, inprove them before she hands them to her students or to her faculty.

Continue reading

Where Are the Humanities Classroom Blogs?

Food for thought:

Technological products are rhetorical devices that present demonstrative arguments. They articulate, in both sense of that term, practical meaning that shapes attitudes and encourages future action through interactive engagement with users. Addressing cultural articulations through the demonstrative mode of design practice provides new perspectives on the ideological effect of those articulations, perspectives that are conveyed experientially rather than textually. This mode is one we cannot afford to dismiss in an age in which information and insight increasingly are conveyed in nontextual form. Doing so would mean isolating the humanities from contemporary concerns at a time when insight from the humanities is needed most.
Strain and VanHoosier-Carey Eloquent Interfaces: Humanities-based Analysis in the Age of Hypermedia in Eloquent Images: Word and Image in the Age of New Media

I am flailing about a bit with the end-of the semester mayhem with my students: having two classes propose and then embark on independent projects must be a sign that I am, indeed, nuts. But I have to say, the students are excited by the opportunity to try out something with little intervention on my part.

And once again they surprise me– In my creative writing class, eleven of the eighteen students have opted to do multimedia projects (based on one presentation by two students from last year’s class, who were two of the three who opted for digital stories last year)–I’m wondering about that shift, whether because they could see models from last year they felt pulled in that direction. I will certainly have them discuss their reasons in their final reflective essays.

I’m also feeling a little pressed due to three upcoming conference papers and/or presentations two weekends in a row right when classes end–enthusiatic as I am about them, I’m wondering a little about my sanity right about now.

And then there’s the wee talk I’m giving on campus tomorrow:

I am presenting to interested Middlebury faculty on “Technology and Pedagogy” as a part of the Talking about Teaching Series. It’s a good exercise for me to think about what colleagues who don’t use social software, multimedia authoring, podcasting and even, perhaps, course management tools might want and need to hear about the impacts of fully integrating technology right into the fabric of the humanities classroom course design. I have a reputation, after all, for scaring people with my passion for integrating technology into humanities courses–and I’m going to try to invite them rather than urge them, let’s just say, emphatically 😉

Lately I’ve been immersed in communities of practiced bloggers or attending to my bold student bloggers and haven’t really been thinking about those still finding their way around blogs and wikis, RSS and tagging. And I’m finding it a good thing to have to take stock, to review the relationship between technology integration and pedagogy in the liberal arts classroom, to slow down here a minute. During a swing around my blogosphere route to see what others who hang out in the second-wave blogging classrooms (places where social software, in particular, has been used for several years) are saying about bringing blogs, wikis and folksonomies to their colleagues across the curriculum, I still had some difficulty finding many examples of faculty employing these tools in classrooms outside the composition and media-studies, technology and education departments. I find a smattering here and there, a professor or two in one department or another, a biologist or a mathematician, a historian or a geographer. For all the blogs out there and the rising numbers of primary and secondary school classrooms adopting blogs and other social software, movement continues to be slow slow slow across the campuses of our liberal arts colleges as far as I can see. And I’m not talking about CMTs. I’m talking about blogs, wikis, podcasting, folksonomies–multimedia authoring on the Web for the Web, the kind of work my students have embraced in my creative writing, arts writing and Irish literature first-year classes and a couple of my close colleagues’ classes. I guess I figured that since blog-related tracks and full blogging-in-education conferences not to mention SIGs are sprouting up, I would find far more examples of interesting uses of classroom blogging in the disciplines. I’ll keep searching…

Some things I did turn up:

Mark Phillipson’s inspired use of blogs in his Bowdoin classrooms

The Educause Blogs, the growing ranks.

CultureCat’s blogging of CCCC’s blog-centered sessions illustrates the emerging trend of at least talking about blogs in education.

Thanks to Emerson College’s excellent Blogging resources page, I found a link to the Encyclopedia of Educational Technology edited by Bob Hoffman at San Diego State University.

The April issue of D-Lib Magazine includes two helpful articles on Social Bookmarking Tools

And here, then, are the notes to my little talk in hopes that I entice and encourage my colleagues to use social software and multimedia authoring in their classrooms:

Technology and Pedagogy

The Web gives us an opportunity to rethink many of our presuppositions about our nature and our worlds nature. Dave Weinberger, Small Pieces Loosely Joined

The new works do not have a single linear order, corresponding to the pages of the book or the columns of the papyrus roll, and so there is no order to violateFor writers of the new dialogue, the task will be to build, in place of a single argument, a structure of possibilities. The new dialogue will be, as Plato demanded, interactive; it will provide different answers to each reader and may also, in Platos words know before whom to be silent. Jay David Bolter The New Dialogue

By extending and enhancing our educational contexts and by creating altogether new opportunities for learning, integrating technology into our course design we enrich the learning experience for our students and for us as teachers.

Forms of technology considered: Social software and Course Management Systems, Multimedia authoring, Podcasting

Course Content Delivery
Using a course management tool such as Segue or social software such as blogs or wikis:
–Creates a single, organized, updatable locus for the delivery of course content and the retrieval of student work, including outside sources and eReserve;
–Accelerates Inquiry through its efficiency

Community Building as a Means of Intensifying and Diversifying the Learning Experience
Several features of Segue and Blogs lend themselves to establishing an effective learning collaborative from the opening of the semester, creating a community of what Pierre Lvy calls reciprocal apprenticeships

–Linking features allow students to connect to one anothers work

–Online response/workshop/editing groups create workshop and modeling opportunities

–Collaborative project workspaces allow for the development of effective processes

–Discussion spaces, both informal and formal, assigned and free-forming, lead to a sense of vibrant community and ever-deepening critical inquiry

–Connectivity creates the continuous course: the class as a group is in constant contact throughout the semesterclass never ends

–Digital storytelling as a means of learning about and respecting the community of learners

Opportunities to Introduce, and Model Multiple Modes of Learning and Expression

–The visual quality of the blog allows the professor to teach to the moment, having access to the most recent student work before class instead of after; and having the work from all previous semesters, the current semester, the day available in class to point to examples, both in terms of content and execution

–Professors can teach and thus students can experience writing in a variety of voices (informal to formal), genres (discussion to reflection to journal entry to essay) and forms (traditional analysis to multimedia essays) for a range of audiences (self to peer to teacher to the world) all within the same portfolio space if each student has his/her own space and alongside the work of his/her peers on a Motherblog

–Podcasting students reading their work aloud provides opportunities for self-evaluation of style, structure and argument; podcasting oral presentations develops oral skills as well ass providing the professor with assembling exemplary examples

–Teachers can post models of good writing, or link to examples archived on the blog from previous semesters

–Multimedia authoring integrated within or in addition to more traditional forms of writing teach visual literacy as well as deepening inquiry

Impact on Class Time

–The intensifying of class discussions: rarely is there a warm-up period because students have been engaging with the material and each other online

–The accelerating of inquiry: professors can immediately detect gaps and weaknesses in the students grasp of the material and address them in lecture, demonstration and discussion;

–Student-centered, constructivist pedagogy emerges naturally from such a collaborative atmosphere

Opportunities for Service-Learning in a Time-Strapped Course

–Online interactions and connectivity with area organizations can accomplish positive outcomes for the collaboration


CTLRs LINK to Courseblogs and Course Management Tools

A Sampling of BGs Presentations and Papers on Technology and Pedagogy:
BGs professional blog
Notes from Educauses National Leaders Conference, January 2005 with Hctor Vila: Beauty and the Beast: Bringing Blogs into Higher Education
Paper published in BLOGTALKS2: Blogging as a Dynamic Transformative Medium in an American Liberal Arts Classroom

A Sampling of BGs Courses Using Blogs, Podcasting and Digital Storytelling:
EL170, Introduction to Creative Writing
FYS 2003 Contemporary Ireland through Fiction and Film

WP200: Writing Across the Arts

Web Resources:
Kairos Journal: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy

Karen Hyatt Sibley, University of Pennsylvania: Dissertation on Impacts of Technology on Pedagogy